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物聯網(IoT)邊緣節點 – 解決電池10年使用壽命問題

由  Mehdi Zamanian 發布  - 07-29-2019 

從智能家居、可穿戴設備和樓宇自動化等新興應用領域來看,由電池供電的無線應用是物聯網(IoT)內增長最快的細分市場之一。這趨勢由消除所有線束連接的需求推動,無論是聯接還是供電,線束往往限制了它們的采用。例如,用于農業和工業、智能城市和可穿戴等的遙感,如果經有線或墻上插座供電,沒有電池的靈活性和易用性,就不可能實現。

一個明顯的缺點是需要頻繁更換電池,這是不切實際、昂貴和不方便的。為解決這個問題,大多數制造商的目標是將他們設備的電池使用壽命延長到10年。甚至還有人探索用能量采集方案來替代能源的方法。

實現10年電池使用壽命的一個常見技術是利用IoT設備大部分時間未使用的事實,只需要支持小數據有效載荷很少頻率的無線電傳輸。在大多數情況下,傳感器測量也很少。農業傳感器節點是個例子,它需要少量傳感器測量,如每天的溫度和濕度,然后每天向網絡傳輸數據。就電池使用壽命而言,這是很重要的,因為電池的大部分電能是在使用藍牙低功耗、Wi-Fi或Sub-Ghz傳輸或接收數據時產生的,這取決于所使用的傳感器類型。當IoT節點沒有發射或傳感時,它將大多處于空閑或低功耗模式,僅需電池提供極低功率。在大多數用例中,設備處于有源模式的時間百分比(稱為占空比)很容易小于1%,這意味著在其余99%的情況下,它處于低功耗模式。因此,這些耗電任務的頻率不高,可以顯著降低功耗,并有助于延長電池使用壽命。

這說明系統將運行在兩種不同的模式:

  • 有源模式: 數據傳輸和高功率傳感
  • 低功耗模式: 系統處于閑置模式或低功耗傳感

電池電流方面,有源模式需要約幾十毫安(mA),而低功耗模式只需要微安培(µA),相當于有源模式的1/1000到1/10,000。

傳統的高能效方案如開關,不一定提供對這類應用的最佳功率調節。而電池使用壽命可通過低功耗模式的靜態電流來優化,因為這是系統大部分運行時間所耗。

我們的雙模低壓降穩壓器(LDO) NCP171,具有極佳的50 nA靜態電流,設計用于這種低占空比IoT系統。NCP171具有創新的雙模結構,為兩種不同的工作模式-有源和低功耗-提供最佳性能。這意味著有源模式下非常低的噪聲、快速調節,以確??煽康臄祿鬏敽完P鍵的傳感,同時提供低功耗模式下的超低Iq以延長電池使用壽命。這兩種LDO模式可通過切換專用ECO引腳來選擇。

在有源模式下,NCP171提供達80 mA的負載電流,具有可靠的射頻傳輸所需的出色的噪聲和動態性能,以及精確傳感所需的極低噪聲性能。在低功耗模式下,NCP171在5 mA負載下的靜止電流極低,僅為50 nA,從而使電池使用壽命顯著增加。

NCP171還可在切換到低功耗模式時內置電壓偏移,以進一步降低系統功耗,從50 mV到200 mV不等。

了解關于LDO穩壓器的更多信息,及其如何實現您現在的低功耗電池設計需求。

標簽:IoT, Industrial, Consumer, Portable and Wireless
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